Procesos fonológicos en una prueba de repetición de no-palabras en niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje


Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
Source:Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología
Author(s): Ana Susana Mejía Villalobos, Donna Jackson-Maldonado
El análisis de los procesos fonológicos se ha centrado en muestras provenientes de habla espontánea y en edades muy tempranas. Actualmente, existen muy pocos estudios que describan estos procesos fonológicos en español en edades tardías y que se basen en tareas que involucren una alta carga de procesamiento de la memoria de trabajo como lo es en una prueba de repetición de no-palabras (RNP) en poblaciones con trastorno específico del lenguaje (TEL). Este trabajo contrasta el tipo y ocurrencia de los errores fonológicos entre niños mexicanos con TEL y niños con desarrollo típico (DT) de edad escolar en una prueba de RNP. Participaron en el estudio 16 niños de 5 a 6 años, 8 niños con DT y 8 con TEL. Los resultados mostraron patrones generales de los procesos fonológicos en ambos grupos. Se encontró una distribución similar de los procesos en los grupos TEL y DT. Estos resultados coinciden con otros estudios en otras lenguas y en otras poblaciones en tipo y ocurrencia de procesos: los grupos de niños con TEL presentaron un mayor número de procesos fonológicos. Los procesos más frecuentes en los grupos fueron los de asimilación, modificación de la estructura silábica y los de procesos múltiples. Los procesos que distinguieron las poblaciones de niños con DT y TEL fueron los procesos múltiples, seguidos por los procesos que modifican la estructura silábica. Se muestra que, efectivamente, hay persistencia de los procesos fonológicos en etapas escolares, cuando la tarea exige un mayor nivel de procesamiento.Phonological processes have been extensively studied in spontaneous speech samples and in early stages of development. However, there are very few studies that have addressed these processes in Spanish at later ages in tasks involving a high processing load of the working memory such as a test of non-word repetition (NWR) in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This paper contrasts the occurrence of phonological errors among Mexican children with SLI and typically developing children (TD) using a NWR task. The study included 16 children aged 5-6 years: 8 children with SLI and 8 with TD. The results showed general patterns in the behavior of phonological processes in both groups. Also, a similar distribution of processes was in the SLI and TD groups. These results support studies in other languages both in type and tokens of processes: the SLI group had a higher number of phonological processes. The most productive processes in both groups were assimilation, processes with modification of the syllabic structure and multiple processes. The TD and SLI groups could be distinguished by phonological processes. Among those processes that showed differences between groups were multiple processes, followed by processes that modify the syllabic structure. We show that phonological processes are persistent into the school years when children are presented with a task that involves a greater processing load.

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Conchal contractility after inferior turbinate hypertrophy treatment: A prospective, randomized clinical trial

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of these two methods (Nasal corticosteroids (NCS) and radiofrequency (RF) application) on conchal contractility utilizing objective rhinologic measurement parameters.

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Long-term therapy with intravenous zoledronate increases the number of nonattached osteoclasts

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are antiresorptive drugs that are being used clinically to treat bone-related diseases, such as osteoporosis or cancer with bone metastasis (Williams et al., 2014). Users of these drugs are known to be at higher risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which was first described by Marx (2003).

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Determining the fate of cranial sutures after surgical correction of non-syndromic craniosynostosis

“Secondary craniosynostosis” (SCS) refers to a loss of sutures after corrective vault reconstruction. There are no prior studies that comprehensively review SCS in various types of non-syndromic craniosynostosis. We assessed idiopathic and iatrogenic SCS using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT). We also performed a systematic review to estimate the overall incidence of SCS in each craniosynostosis type, and to characterize its clinical features.

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Perinatal complications in patients with unisutural craniosynostosis: An international multicentre retrospective cohort study

Craniosynostosis may lead to hampered fetal head moulding and birth complications. To study the interaction between single suture craniosynostosis and delivery complications, an international, multicentre, retrospective cohort study was performed.

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Effects of low-level laser therapy and platelet concentrate on bone repair: Histological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and radiographic study

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can increase bone metabolism, cell proliferation, and maturation, and reduce inflammation, while platelet concentrate (PC) assists bone healing process by releasing proteins and growth factors. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of combined LLLT and PC therapy in the healing of critical-size bone defects.

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The Sound Quality of Cochlear Implants: Studies With Single-sided Deaf Patients

imageObjective: The goal of the present study was to assess the sound quality of a cochlear implant for single-sided deaf (SSD) patients fit with a cochlear implant (CI).

Background: One of the fundamental, unanswered questions in CI research is “what does an implant sound like?” Conventional CI patients must use the memory of a clean signal, often decades old, to judge the sound quality of their CIs. In contrast, SSD-CI patients can rate the similarity of a clean signal presented to the CI ear and candidate, CI-like signals presented to the ear with normal hearing.

Methods: For Experiment 1 four types of stimuli were created for presentation to the normal hearing ear: noise vocoded signals, sine vocoded signals, frequency shifted, sine vocoded signals and band-pass filtered, natural speech signals. Listeners rated the similarity of these signals to unmodified signals sent to the CI on a scale of 0 to 10 with 10 being a complete match to the CI signal. For Experiment 2 multitrack signal mixing was used to create natural speech signals that varied along multiple dimensions.

Results: In Experiment 1 for eight adult SSD-CI listeners, the best median similarity rating to the sound of the CI for noise vocoded signals was 1.9; for sine vocoded signals 2.9; for frequency upshifted signals, 1.9; and for band pass filtered signals, 5.5. In Experiment 2 for three young listeners, combinations of band pass filtering and spectral smearing lead to ratings of 10.

Conclusion: The sound quality of noise and sine vocoders does not generally correspond to the sound quality of cochlear implants fit to SSD patients. Our preliminary conclusion is that natural speech signals that have been muffled to one degree or another by band pass filtering and/or spectral smearing provide a close, but incomplete, match to CI sound quality for some patients.

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The Role of Preoperative Steroids in Atraumatic Cochlear Implantation Surgery

imageHypothesis: Depth of insertion is related to the extent of tissue response and low frequency hearing loss. Intravenous steroids have greatest effect in reducing postimplantation fibrosis and hearing loss in the presence of significant electrode insertion trauma, when compared with saline treatment.

Background: Experiments exploring the enhancement of cochlear implantation (CI) outcomes with glucocorticosteroids have produced mixed results, possibly due to lack of standardization of the CI model.

Methods: Forty-eight normal-hearing guinea pigs were randomly implanted with a highly flexible electrode to a depth of 1.5, 3.0, or 5.0 mm. For each insertion depth, sub-cohorts received either intravenous saline (“saline”) or dexamethasone (“steroid”) 60 minutes before implantation. Shifts in electrocochleography thresholds at 2 to 32 kHz were determined before and 4 weeks after implantation. Cochleae were harvested and imaged.

Results: Low-frequency hearing loss was greatest with 5.0 mm insertions. Fracture of the osseous spiral lamina and/or fibrotic involvement of the round window membrane exacerbated hearing loss. The extent of intracochlear fibrosis was directly related to the depth of insertion. Steroids reduced the intracochlear tissue response for deepest insertions and in apical regions of the cochlea where basilar membrane contact was prevalent. Steroids preserved no more hearing than saline at all insertion depths.

Conclusion: Cochlear trauma influenced postimplantation hearing loss and steroid effect on fibrosis. Fibrosis, and to a lesser extent, postimplantation hearing loss increased proportionally to the depth of insertion. Steroids did not influence fibrosis relating to the cochleostomy, but could reduce scarring as the electrode negotiated the hook region or near the electrode tip.

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Impact of Cochlear Implantation on Cognitive Functions of Older Adults: Pilot Test Results

imageBackground: A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated.

Objective: To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults.

Study Design: Prospective patient-control study.

Participants: A total of 39 participants took part in the study: 23 cochlear implant (CI) candidates (M = 69.04 ± 12.35 yr) and 16 CI recipients (M = 61.75 ± 15.62 yr). All participants completed an assessment of hearing (pure-tone thresholds and speech perception in quiet), and a computerised, nonverbal test battery of cognitive function assessment, as well as a depression, anxiety, and stress scale.

Results: Independent-sample t test scores for the changes between 0 and 12 months revealed that CI recipients performed significantly better on measures of simple reaction time, cognitive flexibility, paired-associate learning, working memory, and strategy use (p 

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