Under-recognized immunoexpression of “neuroendocrine markers” and “myoepithelial markers” in basal cell carcinomas: Does it indicate true neuroendocrine and myoepithelial differentiation?

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ixivyq

Advertisements

Comparison of Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Palatal versus Lipoaspirated Adipose Tissue

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the proliferation and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from palatal adipose tissue (PAT) and lipoaspirated adipose tissue (LAT). Materials and Methods: PATs were obtained from 2 healthy female patients undergoing surgery for gingival recession, and LATs were obtained from 2 healthy female patients undergoing plastic surgery. LAT- and PAT-derived MSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry using MSC-specific surface markers. The multilineage differentiation capacity of the MSCs was analyzed. The expression of immunophenotyping, embryonic, and differentiation markers was compared between both MSC lines. The proliferation of PAT- and LAT-MSCs was evaluated using a real-time cell analyzer, and telomerase activity was determined using an ELISA-based TRAP assay. Stem cells isolated from PAT and LAT were analyzed by real-time PCR and whole genome array analysis. Results: The cells isolated from PAT had MSC characteristics. In addition, PAT-MSCs had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic potential than LAT-MSCs. Although the proliferation and telomerase activities of LAT-MSCs were higher than those of PAT-MSCs, the difference was not statistically significant. The level of embryonic stem cell markers (Oct4 and Nanog) was higher in LAT-MSCs than in PAT-MSCs. The whole genome array analysis demonstrated that 255 gene sequences were differentially expressed, with more than a twofold change in expression. Conclusions: This is the first comparative analysis of the isolation and characterization of MSCs from PAT and LAT. PAT is an accessible source of MSCs, which could be used in periodontal and craniofacial tissue engineering.
Cells Tissues Organs

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wb9e2a

Obduktionszahlen in Deutschland

Zusammenfassung


Hintergrund

Da die Zuschlagsfähigkeit klinischer Obduktionen im Krankenhausstrukturgesetz von der Erreichung einer bestimmten Obduktionsquote abhängen soll, wurde der Ist-Zustand der Obduktionstätigkeit in Deutschland durch eine Umfrage des Bundesverbandes Deutscher Pathologen e. V. ermittelt.


Material und Methoden

Der Fragebogen umfasste 12 Fragen und wurde an 450 Institute für Pathologie verschickt. Die Rücklaufquote betrug 38 %. Die Daten wurden nach Einrichtungen gruppiert und statistisch ausgewertet.


Ergebnisse

Von 86.416 gemeldeten Obduktionen Erwachsener wurden in 10 Jahren 47 % in Universitätsinstituten, 36 % in Krankenhausinstituten und 17 % in privat geführten Pathologieeinrichtungen durchgeführt. Von 4320 Obduktionen von Kindern und Jugendlichen entfielen auf die verschiedenen Einrichtungen entsprechend jeweils 83 %, 8 % bzw. 9 % und bei 14.047 Fet-Obduktionen jeweils 55 %, 25 % und 20 %. Die absolute Obduktionshäufigkeit ging von 2005 bis 2014 insgesamt um 30 % zurück, wobei eine große Spannweite der Obduktionshäufigkeit vorliegt: universitäre Institute absolut 0‑428, Obduktionsquote 3,4–19,4 %; Krankenhausinstitute absolut 0‑324, Obduktionsquote 1,1–30,8 %; private Institute absolut 0‑268, Obduktionsquote 0,4–5,2 %.


Schlussfolgerung

Bis heute fehlt eine flächendeckende Dokumentation der Obduktionsquoten. Wegen der großen Spannweite der Obduktionszahlen in den verschiedenen Einrichtungen sollten die zum Erreichen der Zuschlagsfähigkeit klinischer Obduktionen geforderten Obduktionsquoten zunächst möglichst niedrig angesetzt werden.

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wM2cTN

Anforderungen des Neurologen an Obduktionen

Zusammenfassung


Hintergrund

Es ist erklärtes gesundheitspolitisches Ziel, die Zahl der klinischen Obduktionen zu steigern, um der notwendigen Qualitätssicherung im Gesundheitswesen gerecht zu werden.


Fragestellung

Welche Anforderungen bestehen seitens der klinischen Neurologie an die Neuroobduktion und wie wird man diesen Anforderungen als Obduzent gerecht?


Methoden

Erörterung, wie die Fragestellungen der klinischen Neurologen für die wichtigsten Krankheitsgruppen gelöst werden können.


Ergebnisse

Die Diagnostik entzündlicher, entzündlich-demyelinisierender und demyelinisierender Hirnerkrankungen, neurodegenerativer, neurometabolischer und neuromuskulärer Erkrankungen sowie hirneigener Tumorerkrankungen sollte den international publizierten Konsensusrichtlinien entsprechen. Ihre Diagnostik bedarf der Entnahme spezifischer Hirnregionen, spezifischer Untersuchungstechniken bzw. Antikörperreaktionen oder spezifischer Asservierungen für biochemische, molekularpathologische und genetische Untersuchungen. Vordringliche Aufgabe bei der Obduktion ist es, alle Informations- und Befunderhebungsmöglichkeiten auszuschöpfen, um vorgenannte Erkrankungs- oder Verdachtsfälle so zeitig zu identifizieren, dass eine zur Diagnose führende Gewebeasservierung getätigt werden kann.


Schlussfolgerung

Insbesondere durch ein tieferes Verständnis chronischer neurologischer Erkrankungen und die Etablierung von Konsensuskriterien hat sich der Anspruch an die neuropathologische Diagnostik enorm erhöht. Um diesem Anspruch gerecht zu werden, sollte eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen klinischen Neurologen, Obduzenten und Neuropathologen stattfinden, von der alle profitieren.

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vmZlNw

Nephronectin is Decreased in Metastatic Breast Carcinoma and Related to Metastatic Organs

Abstract

Breast cancer causes death mostly due to distant metastasis. During metastasis, cancer cells create new conditions in which normal tissue structure can be disturbed. Nephronectin, which is the primary ligand for α8β1 integrin, plays an important role in kidney development. There are conflicting findings regarding its role in cancer progression and metastasis, especially in breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine changes in nephronectin expression in primary tumor tissues and metastatic visceral organs, using metastatic and non-metastatic cell lines in a mouse model of breast cancer. In our study, 4T1-Liver Metastatic and 4T1-Heart Metastatic cells, originally derived from 4T1-murine breast carcinoma, and non-metastatic 67NR carcinoma cells were used. Cancer cells were injected orthotopically into the mammary gland of 8–10 week-old Balb-c mice. Primary tumors, lung, liver tissues were collected on 12th and 25th days after the tumor injection. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine expression of nephronectin in tissues. We also investigated the expression levels of the protein by using western blot technique. We found that lung and liver tissue of control animals (not-injected with tumor cells) expressed nephronectin which was lost in animals bearing metastatic tumor for 25 days. In accordance, nephronectin staining of lung and liver was preserved in animals injected with non-metastatic 67NR tumors. These results demonstrate that loss of nephronectin may play an important role in formation metastatic milieu for cancer cells. This is the first study demonstrating that tumor-induced loss of nephronectin expression in visceral organs in which metastatic growth takes place.

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wtZNNX

Renal collision tumor composed of oncocytoma and mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma: case report of an unprecedented entity

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:Human Pathology
Author(s): Komal Arora, Ross Miller, Seema Mullick, Steven Shen, Alberto G. Ayala, Jae Y. Ro
Primary renal collision tumors composed of two histologically distinct components are rare with only isolated case reports in the medical literature. Oncocytoma is a benign renal neoplasm, which is thought to originate from distal tubular epithelial cells. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) of kidney is a rare, relatively recently described renal neoplasm that was first included in the 2004 World Health Organization RCC classification as a distinct entity. Current studies suggest the tumor originates from the proximal nephron, although it is still controversial. The presence of concurrent oncocytoma with conventional (clear cell) RCC, chromophobe RCC and papillary RCC has been previously described. However, the association of oncocytoma with MTSCC has not yet been reported to our knowledge. Herein, we report the first case of a renal collision tumor composed of oncocytoma and MTSCC.

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vtD3ZT

Postablation neuroma of the myometrium – a report of 5 cases

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:Human Pathology
Author(s): Stewart F. Cramer, Debra S. Heller
When hysterectomy is performed for chronic pelvic pain, routine pathology examination often provides no explanation. However, analysis of small uterine nerves using immunostains may help to address this deficiency. Small uterine nerves tend to be sparse or absent in wide areas of normal myometrium. Some studies of uterine nerves have suggested that endometriosis, adenomyosis, and fibroids are not inherently painful, with increased small nerves in the inner uterine wall associated with the history of pelvic pain. Although such areas may appear normal on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), we have found a subtle inner wall lesion termed inner myometrial elastosis, best detected with trichrome or elastic stains, which may be a reaction to microscopic tears of inner myometrium. Such tears may induce increased inner wall innervation via the generation of Nerve Growth Factor in granulation tissue. In the course of studying uterine nerves with immunostains, we found 5 cases with florid nerve proliferation, after deep endometrial ablation for abnormal uterine bleeding led to increased pelvic pain. We suggest that immunostains for postablation neuromas should be done in hysterectomies when pelvic pain increases after endometrial ablation. This may offer gynecologists and their patients an objective finding with a rational, scientific explanation for the pelvic pain.

from Anatomy Pathology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vty0IH