The Multifaceted Personality of Intestinal CX3CR1+ Macrophages

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:Trends in Immunology
Author(s): Mari Regoli, Eugenio Bertelli, Massimo Gulisano, Claudio Nicoletti
Intestinal macrophages expressing the fraktalkine receptor (CX3CR1+) represent a cell population that plays a variety of roles ranging from maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis at steady state to controlling antigen access by extending transepithelial dendrites (TEDs) to capture luminal microbes and shuttle them across the epithelium to initiate immune responses. However, recent evidence shows that very early during infection, pathogen-capturing CX3CR1+ macrophages migrate to the lumen of the small intestine, therefore preventing pathogens from traversing the epithelium. Here we discuss the complexity of the at-times seemingly opposing roles played by these cells and propose that CX3CR1-mediated pathogen exclusion is part of a defensive strategy against infections that includes multiple effector mechanisms acting synergistically at the intestinal mucosa.

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Complement as a regulator of adaptive immunity

Abstract

The complement system is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved effector system comprising in mammals over 50 circulating and membrane bound proteins. Complement has long been described as belonging to the innate immune system; however, a number of recent studies have demonstrated its key role in the modulation of the adaptive immune response. This review does not set out to be an exhaustive list of the numerous interactions of the many complement components with adaptive immunity; rather, we will focus more precisely on the role of some complement molecules in the regulation of antigen presenting cells, as well as on their direct effect on the activation of the core adaptive immune cells, B and T lymphocytes. Recent reports on the local production and activation of complement proteins also suggest a major role in the control of effector responses. The crucial role of complement in adaptive immunity is further highlighted by several examples of dysregulation of these pathways in human diseases.

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Regulation of epithelial cell expressed C3 in the intestine – Relevance for the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease?

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Publication date: October 2017
Source:Molecular Immunology, Volume 90
Author(s): Annika Sünderhauf, Kerstin Skibbe, Sophie Preisker, Karen Ebbert, Admar Verschoor, Christian M. Karsten, Claudia Kemper, Markus Huber-Lang, Marijana Basic, André Bleich, Jürgen Büning, Klaus Fellermann, Christian Sina, Stefanie Derer
The complement system not only plays a critical role in efficient detection and clearance of bacteria, but also in intestinal immune homeostasis as mice deficient for key complement components display enhanced intestinal inflammation upon experimental colitis. Because underlying molecular mechanisms for this observation are unclear, we investigated the crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), bacteria and the complement system in the course of chronic colitis.Surprisingly, mouse intestinal epithelial cell lines constitutively express high mRNA levels of complement component 3 (C3), Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4. Stimulation of these cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not with flagellin, LD-muramyldipeptide or peptidoglycan, triggered increased C3 expression, secretion and activation. Stimulation of the C3aR on these cell lines with C3a resulted in an increase of LPS-triggered pro-inflammatory response. Tissue biopsies from C57BL/6J mice revealed higher expression of C3, Tlr1, Tlr2 and Tlr4 in colonic primary IECs (pIECs) compared to ileal pIECs, while in germ-free mice no differences in C3 protein expression was observed. In DSS-induced chronic colitis mouse models, C3 mRNA expression was upregulated in colonic biopsies and ileal pIECs with elevated C3 protein in the lamina propria, IECs and the mucus. Notably, increased C3b opsonization of mucosa-attached bacteria and decreased fecal full-length C3 protein was observed in DSS-treated compared to untreated mice. Of significant interest, non-inflamed and inflamed colonic biopsy samples from CD but not UC patients displayed exacerbated C3 expression compared to controls.These findings suggest that a novel TLR4-C3 axis could control the intestinal immune response during chronic colitis.

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Phenolic Glycolipid Facilitates Mycobacterial Escape from Microbicidal Tissue-Resident Macrophages

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:Immunity
Author(s): C.J. Cambier, Seónadh M. O’Leary, Mary P. O’Sullivan, Joseph Keane, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enters the host in aerosol droplets deposited in lung alveoli, where the bacteria first encounter lung-resident alveolar macrophages. We studied the earliest mycobacterium-macrophage interactions in the optically transparent zebrafish. First-responding resident macrophages phagocytosed and eradicated infecting mycobacteria, suggesting that to establish a successful infection, mycobacteria must escape out of the initially infected resident macrophage into growth-permissive monocytes. We defined a critical role for mycobacterial membrane phenolic glycolipid (PGL) in engineering this transition. PGL activated the STING cytosolic sensing pathway in resident macrophages, inducing the production of the chemokine CCL2, which in turn recruited circulating CCR2+ monocytes toward infection. Transient fusion of infected macrophages with CCR2+ monocytes enabled bacterial transfer and subsequent dissemination, and interrupting this transfer so as to prolong mycobacterial sojourn in resident macrophages promoted clearing of infection. Human alveolar macrophages produced CCL2 in a PGL-dependent fashion following infection, arguing for the potential of PGL-blocking interventions or PGL-targeting vaccine strategies in the prevention of tuberculosis.Video Abstract

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Teaser

Cambier et al. find that activation of the STING pathway in lung-resident microbicidal macrophages by the mycobacterial surface lipid PGL enables bacterial escape by inducing the recruitment of mycobacterium-permissive monocytes via the CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis. Their findings reveal a relocation strategy that enables mycobacterial dissemination, and argue for the potential of interventions targeting PGL in the prevention of tuberculosis.

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Therapeutic antibodies against cancer stem cells: a promising approach

Abstract

Monoclonal antibodies have been extensively used to treat malignancy along with routine chemotherapeutic drugs. Chemotherapy for metastatic cancer has not been successful in securing long-term remission of disease. This is in part due to the resistance of cancer cells to drugs. One aspect of the drug resistance is the inability of conventional drugs to eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs) which often constitute less than 1–2% of the whole tumor. In some tumor types, it is possible to identify these cells using surface markers. Monoclonal antibodies targeting these CSCs are an attractive option for a new therapeutic approach. Although administering antibodies has not been effective, when combined with chemotherapy they have proved synergistic. This review highlights the potential of improving treatment efficacy using functional antibodies against CSCs, which could be combined with chemotherapy in the future.

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