The Multifaceted Personality of Intestinal CX3CR1+ Macrophages

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:Trends in Immunology
Author(s): Mari Regoli, Eugenio Bertelli, Massimo Gulisano, Claudio Nicoletti
Intestinal macrophages expressing the fraktalkine receptor (CX3CR1+) represent a cell population that plays a variety of roles ranging from maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis at steady state to controlling antigen access by extending transepithelial dendrites (TEDs) to capture luminal microbes and shuttle them across the epithelium to initiate immune responses. However, recent evidence shows that very early during infection, pathogen-capturing CX3CR1+ macrophages migrate to the lumen of the small intestine, therefore preventing pathogens from traversing the epithelium. Here we discuss the complexity of the at-times seemingly opposing roles played by these cells and propose that CX3CR1-mediated pathogen exclusion is part of a defensive strategy against infections that includes multiple effector mechanisms acting synergistically at the intestinal mucosa.

from Allergy and Immunology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vvCHlq

Advertisements

The Multifaceted Personality of Intestinal CX3CR1+ Macrophages

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:Trends in Immunology
Author(s): Mari Regoli, Eugenio Bertelli, Massimo Gulisano, Claudio Nicoletti
Intestinal macrophages expressing the fraktalkine receptor (CX3CR1+) represent a cell population that plays a variety of roles ranging from maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis at steady state to controlling antigen access by extending transepithelial dendrites (TEDs) to capture luminal microbes and shuttle them across the epithelium to initiate immune responses. However, recent evidence shows that very early during infection, pathogen-capturing CX3CR1+ macrophages migrate to the lumen of the small intestine, therefore preventing pathogens from traversing the epithelium. Here we discuss the complexity of the at-times seemingly opposing roles played by these cells and propose that CX3CR1-mediated pathogen exclusion is part of a defensive strategy against infections that includes multiple effector mechanisms acting synergistically at the intestinal mucosa.

from #ENT via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vvCHlq

Specific mutations of penicillin-binding protein 1A in 77 clinically acquired amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in comparison with 77 amoxicillin-susceptible strains

Abstract

Background

Amoxicillin (Amx) is one of the most important antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Main determinants of genetically stable Amx resistance are mutations in the C-terminus of penicillin-binding protein 1A (pbp1A). However, contribution of individual mutation remains unclear.

Methods

77 Amx-resistant (AmxR) and 77 Amx-susceptible (AmxS) H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric tissues, and DNA sequencing was performed to compare C-terminus sequences of pbp1A gene between AmxR and AmxS strains. Natural transformation of these mutated genes into amoxicillin-susceptible strains was performed.

Results

Among many mutations in pbp1A, D479E (OR: 37.4, 95% CI: 5.53-252.49, < .001), and T593 mutation (OR: 32.0, 95% CI: 4.04-252.86, < .001) independently contributed to Amx resistance in H. pylori strains. In the transformation experiment, T593 mutations were identified in their transformants showing Amx resistance. However, PCR product of D479E was not inserted into recipient (ATCC 43504) resulting in transformation failure.

Conclusion

Amx resistance is associated with various substitutions in pbp1A and T593 mutation contributes to Amx resistance of H. pylori.

from #Esophageal Cancer via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xz0ti2

Specific mutations of penicillin-binding protein 1A in 77 clinically acquired amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in comparison with 77 amoxicillin-susceptible strains

Abstract

Background

Amoxicillin (Amx) is one of the most important antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Main determinants of genetically stable Amx resistance are mutations in the C-terminus of penicillin-binding protein 1A (pbp1A). However, contribution of individual mutation remains unclear.

Methods

77 Amx-resistant (AmxR) and 77 Amx-susceptible (AmxS) H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric tissues, and DNA sequencing was performed to compare C-terminus sequences of pbp1A gene between AmxR and AmxS strains. Natural transformation of these mutated genes into amoxicillin-susceptible strains was performed.

Results

Among many mutations in pbp1A, D479E (OR: 37.4, 95% CI: 5.53-252.49, < .001), and T593 mutation (OR: 32.0, 95% CI: 4.04-252.86, < .001) independently contributed to Amx resistance in H. pylori strains. In the transformation experiment, T593 mutations were identified in their transformants showing Amx resistance. However, PCR product of D479E was not inserted into recipient (ATCC 43504) resulting in transformation failure.

Conclusion

Amx resistance is associated with various substitutions in pbp1A and T593 mutation contributes to Amx resistance of H. pylori.

from #ENT via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xz0ti2

Specific mutations of penicillin-binding protein 1A in 77 clinically acquired amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in comparison with 77 amoxicillin-susceptible strains

Abstract

Background

Amoxicillin (Amx) is one of the most important antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Main determinants of genetically stable Amx resistance are mutations in the C-terminus of penicillin-binding protein 1A (pbp1A). However, contribution of individual mutation remains unclear.

Methods

77 Amx-resistant (AmxR) and 77 Amx-susceptible (AmxS) H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric tissues, and DNA sequencing was performed to compare C-terminus sequences of pbp1A gene between AmxR and AmxS strains. Natural transformation of these mutated genes into amoxicillin-susceptible strains was performed.

Results

Among many mutations in pbp1A, D479E (OR: 37.4, 95% CI: 5.53-252.49, < .001), and T593 mutation (OR: 32.0, 95% CI: 4.04-252.86, < .001) independently contributed to Amx resistance in H. pylori strains. In the transformation experiment, T593 mutations were identified in their transformants showing Amx resistance. However, PCR product of D479E was not inserted into recipient (ATCC 43504) resulting in transformation failure.

Conclusion

Amx resistance is associated with various substitutions in pbp1A and T593 mutation contributes to Amx resistance of H. pylori.

from #ORL via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xz0ti2

Assessing nurses’ adherence to a central line maintenance care checklist on a pediatric inpatient unit

S01966553.gif

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:American Journal of Infection Control
Author(s): Katherine B. Sabo, Emily E. Sickbert-Bennett, Ashley A. Kellish, Cheryl A. Smith-Miller
Adherence to evidence-based central line maintenance practices remains a challenge, particularly in complex patient populations. Using an evidence-based observational checklist, areas of nonadherence were identified and a focused educational intervention was developed, resulting in improved adherence across all aspects of the central line maintenance care bundle.

from #ORL-Sfakianakis via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gaUDQj

Low prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in long-term care facilities in Graz, Austria

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:American Journal of Infection Control
Author(s): Eva Leitner, Elisabeth Zechner, Elisabeth Ullrich, Gernot Zarfel, Josefa Luxner, Christian Pux, Gerald Pichler, Walter Schippinger, Robert Krause, Ines Zollner-Schwetz
BackgroundResidents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are increasingly found to be an important reservoir of multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria.AimsWe aimed to determine colonization by MRGN bacteria over 6 months in LTCFs and geriatric wards in Graz, Austria, and to evaluate risk factors for such colonization.MethodsDuring August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence survey at LTCFs and geriatric wards of the Geriatric Health Centers of the City of Graz. Inguinal and perianal swabs were taken from 137 patients and screened for MRGN using standard procedures. Six months after the initial investigation all colonized patients were sampled again and use of antibiotics, hospital admissions, and mortality was registered. Genetic relatedness of MRGN bacteria was evaluated.ResultsWe detected 12 patients harboring MRGN isolates (prevalence, 8.7%). Overall inguinal colonization was 5.1%. After 6 months, only 2 out of 12 patients were still colonized. Presence of a urinary catheter was associated with a higher risk of MRGN colonization (odds ratio [OR], 17.5; 95% CI, 1.6-192). Chronic wounds and gastrostomy were also risk factors of MRGN colonization (OR, 10.7; 95% CI, 1.6-69.3 and OR, 18.3; 95% CI, 2.4-139.4, respectively). There was no difference in mortality between colonized and noncolonized patients.ConclusionsPrevalence of colonization with MRGN bacteria was low in patients in LTCFs and geriatric wards in Graz, Austria.

from #ORL-Sfakianakis via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2ivlqrg