Association Between Obesity and Migraine in Women

Abstract


Purpose of Review

Migraine is a common and highly disabling condition that is particularly prevalent among women and especially women of reproductive age. The tremendous rise in adiposity in the Western world has led to an epidemic of obesity in women. The particular effects of obesity on women with migraine of various ages are the focus of this review.


Recent Findings

Conflicting findings from various studies with different approaches and populations have made challenging definitive conclusions about associations between migraine and obesity. While the association between obesity and migraine frequency has been consistently demonstrated and obesity is considered a risk factor for progression from episodic to chronic migraine, the association between obesity and migraine prevalence is still somewhat debated and appears to be dependent on gender and age, with the most consistent effects observed in women younger than 55 years of age.


Summary

Association between migraine and obesity is most commonly observed in women of reproductive age. The multimodal changes associated with age and hormonal change in women likely play a role in this relationship, as obesity does not appear to be related to migraine in women over 55 years of age. Future studies focusing on the migraine-obesity relationship in women should examine the effects of age, endogenous hormonal state, and exogenous hormones on migraine and obesity.

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Association Between Obesity and Migraine in Women

Abstract


Purpose of Review

Migraine is a common and highly disabling condition that is particularly prevalent among women and especially women of reproductive age. The tremendous rise in adiposity in the Western world has led to an epidemic of obesity in women. The particular effects of obesity on women with migraine of various ages are the focus of this review.


Recent Findings

Conflicting findings from various studies with different approaches and populations have made challenging definitive conclusions about associations between migraine and obesity. While the association between obesity and migraine frequency has been consistently demonstrated and obesity is considered a risk factor for progression from episodic to chronic migraine, the association between obesity and migraine prevalence is still somewhat debated and appears to be dependent on gender and age, with the most consistent effects observed in women younger than 55 years of age.


Summary

Association between migraine and obesity is most commonly observed in women of reproductive age. The multimodal changes associated with age and hormonal change in women likely play a role in this relationship, as obesity does not appear to be related to migraine in women over 55 years of age. Future studies focusing on the migraine-obesity relationship in women should examine the effects of age, endogenous hormonal state, and exogenous hormones on migraine and obesity.

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Association Between Obesity and Migraine in Women

Abstract


Purpose of Review

Migraine is a common and highly disabling condition that is particularly prevalent among women and especially women of reproductive age. The tremendous rise in adiposity in the Western world has led to an epidemic of obesity in women. The particular effects of obesity on women with migraine of various ages are the focus of this review.


Recent Findings

Conflicting findings from various studies with different approaches and populations have made challenging definitive conclusions about associations between migraine and obesity. While the association between obesity and migraine frequency has been consistently demonstrated and obesity is considered a risk factor for progression from episodic to chronic migraine, the association between obesity and migraine prevalence is still somewhat debated and appears to be dependent on gender and age, with the most consistent effects observed in women younger than 55 years of age.


Summary

Association between migraine and obesity is most commonly observed in women of reproductive age. The multimodal changes associated with age and hormonal change in women likely play a role in this relationship, as obesity does not appear to be related to migraine in women over 55 years of age. Future studies focusing on the migraine-obesity relationship in women should examine the effects of age, endogenous hormonal state, and exogenous hormones on migraine and obesity.

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Effect of annealing procedure on the bonding of ceramic to cobalt-chromium alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping

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Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
Source:The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Author(s): Ayca Tulga
Statement of problemAn annealing procedure is a heat treatment process to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys. However, information is lacking about the effect of the annealing process on the bonding ability of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping.PurposeThe purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the fabrication techniques and the annealing procedure on the shear bond strength of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by different techniques.Material and methodsNinety-six cylindrical specimens (10-mm diameter, 10-mm height) made of Co-Cr alloy were prepared by casting (C), milling (M), direct process powder-bed (LaserCUSING) with and without annealing (CL+, CL), and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) with annealing (EL+) and without annealing (EL). After the application of ceramic to the metal specimens, the metal-ceramic bond strength was assessed using a shear force test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Shear bond strength values were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05).ResultsAlthough statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups (M, 29.87 ±2.06; EL, 38.92 ±2.04; and CL+, 40.93 ±2.21; P=.002), no significant differences were found among the others (P>.05). The debonding surfaces of all specimens exhibited mixed failure mode.ConclusionsThese results showed that the direct process powder-bed method is promising in terms of metal-ceramic bonding ability. The manufacturing technique of Co-Cr alloys and the annealing process influence metal-ceramic bonding.

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Effect of annealing procedure on the bonding of ceramic to cobalt-chromium alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping

S00223913.gif

Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
Source:The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Author(s): Ayca Tulga
Statement of problemAn annealing procedure is a heat treatment process to improve the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys. However, information is lacking about the effect of the annealing process on the bonding ability of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by rapid prototyping.PurposeThe purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the fabrication techniques and the annealing procedure on the shear bond strength of ceramic to Co-Cr alloys fabricated by different techniques.Material and methodsNinety-six cylindrical specimens (10-mm diameter, 10-mm height) made of Co-Cr alloy were prepared by casting (C), milling (M), direct process powder-bed (LaserCUSING) with and without annealing (CL+, CL), and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) with annealing (EL+) and without annealing (EL). After the application of ceramic to the metal specimens, the metal-ceramic bond strength was assessed using a shear force test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Shear bond strength values were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05).ResultsAlthough statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups (M, 29.87 ±2.06; EL, 38.92 ±2.04; and CL+, 40.93 ±2.21; P=.002), no significant differences were found among the others (P>.05). The debonding surfaces of all specimens exhibited mixed failure mode.ConclusionsThese results showed that the direct process powder-bed method is promising in terms of metal-ceramic bonding ability. The manufacturing technique of Co-Cr alloys and the annealing process influence metal-ceramic bonding.

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A multidisciplinary approach to the management of a maxillary midline diastema: A clinical report

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Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
Source:The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Author(s): Mario F. Romero, Courtney S. Babb, Christian Brenes, Fernando J. Haddock
A maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is a common complaint of dental patients. An MMD can be closed with treatment from different disciplines, including operative dentistry and orthodontics. A comprehensive smile analysis is also a necessity before beginning treatment. This article highlights the closure of a 3-mm MMD by using a combination of orthodontics and direct composite resin restorations.

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A multidisciplinary approach to the management of a maxillary midline diastema: A clinical report

S00223913.gif

Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
Source:The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Author(s): Mario F. Romero, Courtney S. Babb, Christian Brenes, Fernando J. Haddock
A maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is a common complaint of dental patients. An MMD can be closed with treatment from different disciplines, including operative dentistry and orthodontics. A comprehensive smile analysis is also a necessity before beginning treatment. This article highlights the closure of a 3-mm MMD by using a combination of orthodontics and direct composite resin restorations.

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Safe zone in anterior mandible related to the genial tubercle for implant osteotomy in a Chinese-Malaysian population: A CBCT study

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Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Author(s): Yik Sze Voon, Pravinkumar G. Patil
Statement of problemThe genial tubercle is a clinically palpable landmark in the mandible and can be identified in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Its location can be used to measure the safe zone in the interforaminal region of the mandible. These measurements may be helpful for implant treatment planning in patients with complete edentulism.PurposeThe purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the safe distance in the interforaminal region of the mandible measured from the genial tubercle level for implant osteotomy in a Chinese-Malaysian population.Material and methodsA total of 201 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files were selected for the study from the CBCTs of dentate or edentulous Chinese-Malaysian adult patients with ongoing or completed treatments. Measurements were made with implant planning software. The anatomy of the whole mandible was assessed in the coronal cross-sectional, horizontal view and in panoramic view. Measurements were obtained in millimeters on one side by locating and marking a genial tubercle and then marking the mesial margin of the mental foramen and the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. The corresponding points of these landmarks were identified on the crest of the mandibular ridge to measure the linear distances. All the measurement steps were repeated on the other side. The linear distance of 2 mm was deducted from the total distance between the genial tubercle and the anterior loop separately for left and right side measurements to identify the safe zone. The mixed 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to analyze side and sex-related variations.ResultsThe mean safe zone measured at the crestal level from the genial tubercle site on the left side of the mandible was 21.12 mm and 21.67 mm on the right side. A statistically significant (P<.05) difference was found between the left and right sides of the safe zone measurements in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found in the safe zone between men and women on either the left or right side (P=.655). The minimum distance from the genial tubercle to the right side safe zone in women was 12.82 mm and 14.99 mm in men; however, on the left side, the minimum distance was observed to be 14.81 mm in women and 15.54 mm in men.ConclusionsThe safe zone related to the genial tubercle was 21.12 mm on the left side and 21.67 mm on the right side, with no significant sex-related variations. Within the same individuals, a significant difference was found in the safe zone between the left and right side.

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Safe zone in anterior mandible related to the genial tubercle for implant osteotomy in a Chinese-Malaysian population: A CBCT study

alertIcon.gif

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
Source:The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Author(s): Yik Sze Voon, Pravinkumar G. Patil
Statement of problemThe genial tubercle is a clinically palpable landmark in the mandible and can be identified in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Its location can be used to measure the safe zone in the interforaminal region of the mandible. These measurements may be helpful for implant treatment planning in patients with complete edentulism.PurposeThe purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the safe distance in the interforaminal region of the mandible measured from the genial tubercle level for implant osteotomy in a Chinese-Malaysian population.Material and methodsA total of 201 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files were selected for the study from the CBCTs of dentate or edentulous Chinese-Malaysian adult patients with ongoing or completed treatments. Measurements were made with implant planning software. The anatomy of the whole mandible was assessed in the coronal cross-sectional, horizontal view and in panoramic view. Measurements were obtained in millimeters on one side by locating and marking a genial tubercle and then marking the mesial margin of the mental foramen and the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. The corresponding points of these landmarks were identified on the crest of the mandibular ridge to measure the linear distances. All the measurement steps were repeated on the other side. The linear distance of 2 mm was deducted from the total distance between the genial tubercle and the anterior loop separately for left and right side measurements to identify the safe zone. The mixed 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to analyze side and sex-related variations.ResultsThe mean safe zone measured at the crestal level from the genial tubercle site on the left side of the mandible was 21.12 mm and 21.67 mm on the right side. A statistically significant (P<.05) difference was found between the left and right sides of the safe zone measurements in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found in the safe zone between men and women on either the left or right side (P=.655). The minimum distance from the genial tubercle to the right side safe zone in women was 12.82 mm and 14.99 mm in men; however, on the left side, the minimum distance was observed to be 14.81 mm in women and 15.54 mm in men.ConclusionsThe safe zone related to the genial tubercle was 21.12 mm on the left side and 21.67 mm on the right side, with no significant sex-related variations. Within the same individuals, a significant difference was found in the safe zone between the left and right side.

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